Full Project – Effect of NPK fertilizer and intra-row spacing on growth and yield of Sesame

Full Project – Effect of NPK fertilizer and intra-row spacing on growth and yield of Sesame

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1.1 Background of the Study

Sesame (Sesamumindicum L) is one of the oldest spices and oil crops in the world, grown mainly for its seed that contains approximately 50% oil and 25% protein (Burden, 2005). It belongs to the family pedaliaceae, which contains about 16 genera and 60 species. In spite of the fact that the majority of the wild species of the genus sesamum are native to sub-saharan Africa (Bedigan, 2003) demonstrated that sesame was first domesticated in india, citing morphological and cytogenetic affinities between domesticated Sesame and the south india native ( Mulayanum). The crop is commonly known as benniseed in west Africa, Simsim in East Africa, Tilli in india, and in Nigeria, it is locally called Ridi in Hausa, Mkpuru in Igbo and Irugbin in Yoruba.

Greenway (1945) further report that the great diversity of wild forms found in this region supported that Africa was the main center of its origin. Although it is native to Africa, it was taken at a very early date to india where a secondary center of diversity was developed (Onwueme and Singh, 1991). The latter further reported that the crop was known in Iran and Egypt at least 4000 and 3000 years ago, respectively.

1.2 Botany of Sesame

Sesame is an erect, annual and occasionally a perennial crop that grows to a height of 50.8 – 152.4cm depending on the variety and the growing conditions (Arnborg, 1988). Some varieties are highly branched, while others are unbranched. It has alternately arranged leaves of 4 – 14cm long with an entire margin. The flowers are white to purple, tubular 3 – 5cm long, with four-lobed petals (Bedigan, 2004). The seeds are about 3mm long, and those varieties with the white testa yield the best quality crops (Onwueme and Singh, 1991). Sesame is normally self-pollinated, although cross pollination by insects is common. The seeds mature 4-6 weeks after fertilization. The growth is indeterminate, thus plants continue to produce leaves, flowers, and capsules as long as the weather conditions are favorable.

1.3 Climatic Requirements

Climate is one of the important factors affecting Sesame production. Commercial variety requires 90 – 120 frost-free days. Day time temperature of 20°c to 27°c are optimal, below 20°c, growth is reduced, and at 10°c germination and growth are inhibited (Seegeler, 1989). Rainfall requirement of Sesame is 500 – 650mm per annum. It requires adequate moisture for germination and early growth and for reasonable yields. Sesame is intolerant to water-logging. It toleratesmany soil types, but it thrives best on well drained fertile soils of medium texture and neutral pH.

1.4 Utilization

Sesame,Sesamumindicum L., is an ancient oil crop supplying seeds for confectionery purposes, edible oil, paste (tahini), cake and flour. It is typically a crop of small farmers in the developing countries. The taste of sesame differs among varieties, and can be negatively affected by poor post-harvest processing and storage. Part of the attraction of sesame for baking is undoubtedly its high fat (50% oil) and high protein content (up to 25% protein by weight). Sesame oil carries a premium relative to other cooking oils and is considered more stable than most vegetable oils due to antioxidants in the oil. The antioxidants inhibit the development of rancidity in the oil. Inthe food industry, where synthetic antioxidants are used extensively, there is an increasing demand for more natural products. Sesame is commercialized in a number of forms. Most sesame is processed directly into oil but can also be sold at various stages of processing, for various uses, such as meal, paste, confections, and bakery products. In Nigeria, sesame is grown for its seed, and the primary use of the sesame seed is as a source of oil for cooking. It is also common to find roasted sesame seeds sold (either sole or with groundnuts) and eaten as snack among rural and urban dwellers across Nigeria.

With the growing demand for organically grown food there is a market for sesame products produced under organic conditions. During sesame seed extraction process, the remaining meal, e.g. extraction by-products is a high protein material suitable for feeding to livestock. Although at this time sesame oil is used almost exclusively for human food consumption, it has potential for a variety of industrial uses, as do most vegetable oils. The young leaves may also be eaten in stews, and the dried stems may be burnt as fuel with the ash used for local soap making.

1.5   Production, Trade and Economic Importance

Sesame is an important oil seed crop that ranks sixth in the world among vegetable oils. The world production was estimated at 3.66 million tonnes with Asia and Africa producing 2.55 and 0.95 million tonnes, respectively (Olowe, 2004). Nigeria is the third largest producers of Sesame in Africa after Sudan and Uganda. Nigeria, currently produces 400,000 –  500,000tonnes of Sesame seed with the largest producing states being Jigawa, Nasarawa, Benue, Bauchi, Taraba, Niger, Kano, Katsina, Gombe, Kogi, Kwara, Yobe and Plateau, unfortunately, average yield of Sesame is still low at 0.4 ton/ha (FOA, 2004)



1.6 Problems Statement

Sesame thrives well in a harsh environment and requires limited fertilizer, water, and litter without the need for the use of pesticides due to high levels of natural tolerance for diseases and insects pest. However, the yield is highly variable depending on the growing environment, cultural practices, and the cultivars. It is mostly grown under rainfed conditions of arid and semi-arid areas where mild-to- severe water deficit stress is experienced. Sesame productivity is limited in those areas by drought and salinity. It is sensitive to drought mainly at the vegetative stages (Boureima et al. 2012).Similarly, the crop may drastically be affected by insect pests such as leaf roller, capsule borer, sphinx moth, aphids, and gall midge. Lack of fast-adapting cultivars, capsules shattering, un even ripening, poor crop stand establishment, lower fertilizer responses, profuse branching, low harvest index, indeterminate growth habit, and susceptibility to diseases are the limiting factors in sesame production world wide(Tripathyet al 2019). Despite the high commercial potentialities of Sesame to the Nigerian economy and also it’s highly nutritional values, research and production of the crop remain significantly low. Nigeria today, which is tropical, provides a congenial environment for a large production of the crop. Research to increase the yield of Sesame has so far been limited to introduction of varieties from abroad with little agronomic trials geared towards developing the best production practices towards increasing the crop yield.

1.7   Justification of the Study

Farmers grow Sesame in the northern part of the country, but have not been adequately enlightened on improved varieties or management practices that can give them high yields. It is therefore essential to find out ways of enhancing Sesame yield in the area where the crop is cultivated in the country by means of optimum plant population and fertilization which may increase the yield of the crop tremendously.

1.8Objectives of the Study

  1. To evaluate the effects of NPK fertilizer to the growth and yield of Sesame.
  2. To assess the effect of intra-row spacing on the growth and yield of Sesame.
  3. To study the interaction of intra-raw spacing and NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of sesame.

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Full Project – Effect of NPK fertilizer and intra-row spacing on growth and yield of Sesame