Full Project – Assessment of water quality of hand dug well

Full Project – Assessment of water quality of hand dug well

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1.0       Introduction

Water remains one of the most essential elements and components of various metabolicactivities within living and non-living organisms. Water, as a natural resource, is sometimes scarce, and where it is in abundance,it is unevenly distributed, both in space and time. For instance, Europe and Asia togetherhave only 27% of world’s freshwater, however, they both hold about 76% of the world’s population. As water total estimates varies, the ocean, which covers 71% of the earth’ssurface and with an average depth of 3.8 km, holds as large as 97% of the earth’s water, while 2% is frozen in ice caps and the deep groundwater accounts for 0.31%. This 99.31% ofwater is of no use to man for domestic and production purposes, it is the remaining 0.69% or4.374 x 106 km3of freshwater resources that man principally depends upon. Three per cent of freshwater (or 0.003% of total water) are held in streams, rivers and lakes, while the atmosphere holds only 0.3% of freshwater (or 0.00093% of total water), and the rest are locked up in icebergs and groundwater. Underground water is considered as the major portion of fresh water resources. It is one of the most used sources of freshwater for drinking anddomestic uses. Living organisms, especially microorganisms, exploit the use of groundwaterfor day-to-day metabolic activities (Wood, W.E. 2012).

The quality of groundwater, which depends on the rate of recharge, atmospheric precipitation, inland water and subsurface geochemical process, is continuously depleted and degraded, especially in Nigeria. The rapid growth in human population coupled with industrialization, improper waste disposal are factors affecting the quality and scarcity of underground water. Improper waste solid waste management is associated with health-related issues, causing many ecological and public health challenges. For example, Olasehinde et al. found pathogenic microorganisms in water from human and animal excrement in their study. (Watt, S.B., 2012)

In Nigeria, people rely on underground water, especially hand-dug well as a source of their drinking water. Most of these hand-dug wells are exposed to contamination from flooding, improper waste disposal, location of the well and other anthropogenic activities. Due to lack of clean water supply, inSabonLayin are using hand-dug wells as source of drinking and other purposes. (Wood, W.E. 2012).

Characterization of these hand-dug wells has not been given priority asmost of these wells have not been subjected to comprehensive physicochemical, bacteriological and water quality index assessment to determine their level of contamination. (Watt, S.B.,2012).

Studies on water quality index have been on surface water with few studies onunderground water. It is expedient to say that biological properties and physicochemicalproperties are key indicators for underground water quality assessment, whereas hydro-chemical properties are important for groundwater quality evaluation. Assessment of waterquality of hand dug well is very important because it targets at reducing the incidences ofwater-related diseases(Wikipedia, 2010).

In this study, an attempt was made to determine levels of contamination of hand-dug well water from SabonLayin and itssuitability for drinking. This includes determining the physicochemical parameters, identifying and quantifying the microbiology load of the sampled water and also evaluatingthe water quality index (WQI) of the water samples (Wood, W.E. 2012).

1.1       Statement of Problem

The need for studies like this cannot be overemphasized, although a lot of attempt had been made to study or assess water quality generally, there is still need to undertake a research on water quality of hand dug wells arising its availability in many communities. Due to the fact the major source of drinking water are in area of questionable hygiene environment and controls, it implies that a variable of substance may be involved in the contamination of natural drinking water from source such as rain water, ground water springs, lakes, wells and boreholes water. Some of these contaminants may include organic pathogens and chemicals wastes. This knowledge will help to reduce the consumption of untreated water and thereby reduce their vulnerability to disease like cholera and typhoid.

1.2       Aim and Objectives

            1.2.1    Aim

The aim of this project is assessment of water quality of hand dug, well for domestic purpose in SabonLayinBali with WHO.

            1.2.2    Objectives

  1. To evaluate water quality parameters of water source in the study area.
  2. To determine the suitability of well water for drinking and domestic use
  • To suggest the possible treatment process according to WHO standard.

1.3       Significant of the Study       

The importance of the hand dug well water cannot be over emphasis because it helps the society,  The need to assess the quality of water from hand-dug well consumed by the public at Sabon-Layin, Bali becomes imperative because it has a direct effect on the health of individuals. In Nigeria, hand-dug well is a major source of groundwater abstraction for domestic water supply in the urban centers. The increase demand for fresh water coupled with limited supply of pipe-borne water has forced urban dwellers to resort to the use of well water for drinking and other domestic purposes.

Therefore, the research work will serve as a guide to other intended researchers who may want to write on similar topic, and also assist other community to determine the appropriate use of hand dug well water.

1.4       Scope and Limitation

This study covers the assessment of water quality of hand-dug well SabonLayin Bali Local Government. The scope is selected for the purpose of empirical data that will lead to valid conclusion.

1.5       Limitation

The project is limited to the assessment and analysis of the physical parameters of the water and possible treatment process will be suggested.



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Full Project – Assessment of water quality of hand dug well