Full Project – A study on the impact of soil erosion and control strategies

Full Project – A study on the impact of soil erosion and control strategies

Click here to Get this Complete Project Chapter 1-5



1.1     Background Situation:

Soil erosion is an old phenomenon as mankind. It has worsened human civilization and the quest for better live by man. It is either caused by natural agents or induced as a result socioeconomic development over the years. The eroded material from soil erosion cause both on-site and off-site effects which are detrimental to both flora and fauna. The effects could be exacerbated by inter and intra reactions within the eco-system. Soil erosion takes place when soil is left bare to wind energy or rain drop. The intensive is dependent on the severity of rain drop and wind blowing across the bare land.

The erosion phenomenon is sometimes slow, where it usually occurs immediately unnoticed, it can also occur at a rapid rate resulting in a great loss of the upper part of the soil. Soil erosion on crop lands is manifested in the reduction of the yield potential, surface water quality reduction, and impaired drainage networks (Munodawafa, 2012). Among the greatest adverse worldwide environmental concerns is soil erosion. This is because it causes not only soil nutrient deprivation and degradation of land, but it also leads to many notable off-site environmental problems such as flooding, water siltation, and pollution (Ziadat, F. (2014).

Soil erosion usually occurs in places that are susceptible, the topography is sloped and when long duration rainfall coincides with inadequate vegetative cover. Soil erosion monitoring is a very key to recognizing vulnerable areas and for measuring the yield of deposits in the field. Sediment yield and soil erosion constitute key factors which may be used for water quality control activities. (Cai, F. (2013)

Soil erosion is a means that has plague the society for as long as time itself is very common with rural areas where the soil is more prone to agent of erosion such as good road (tarred) irrigation system etc. are not available in the rural areas compared to the urban areas.

  • As a result of soil erosion, a lot of access road had been washed off. Soil erosion from its most simple form can metamorphose into what is called a gully. This creates a kind of irregular sight on a landscape. Any place disturbed by soil erosion has its agricultural, business and other activities disturbed greatly.

A string of ideas about measures of controlling soil erosion, both as medieval and modern measures have been generated over the years, but more lasting solution to soil erosion are being sought. This is so because despite all the ideas of control generated in the past, this societal plague still rears its head high. It is against this background that this study is based.

This study is an effort geared towards funding a lasting solution to the erosion problem.


The adverse effect of soil erosion on the society cannot be overstated for one, it reduces the fertility of the soil greatly, and it does this by washing away the nutrient or mineral substance in the top soil. This affects agricultural production to a greater extent.

Soil erosion also has effect on roads, building and the general relief of the land. This study is therefore meant to find solution to these problems and its chain effects. Land is often transformed from a forest or other natural landscape, such as floodplains and wetlands, into a crop field or pasture. The converted land is less able to soak up water, making flooding more common. These and many more are problem the researcher wants to proffer plausible solution.


The importance of this research work and its findings to the study area cannot be over emphasized. It will serve as a reference purposes and can be used for further related studies to be carried out in the future.

It will be of benefit to Idah local Government and the government at large, as they may use the recommendations from this study to curb erosion from the area.


The scope of this research work covered only Idah Local Government. It is the study of the impact of soil erosion and control strategies.


This research work is aimed at finding out positive effective strategies for the control of erosion in Idah town.

In the process of carrying out this study, the following objectives are hoped to be pursued

  1. To find out the specific cause of erosion in Idah town
  2. To appraised previous erosion control strategies
  3. To access the major effect of soil erosion in this town
  4. To fashion out suitable erosion control strategies for Idah town.


1.6.1 The Research design:

A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the frame work that set the research work in motion.

A research design sets up the framework for adequate test of relations among variables. It is either experimental or non-experimental. The researcher has decided to use non-experimental research design. This is because this type of study is of great important to the social scientists.

1.6.2 Data Types and Sources:

Two major types and sources of data were used by the researcher in this research work. These were the primary source and the secondary sources of data.

Primary Source: This refers to data that are in their original state or form being collected. They are in their raw state. The primary data collected for this project involves the responses from the questionnaire administered and personal interview with the residents of Idah.

Secondary Sources: These are data that are being processed and have undergone transformation. For this source of data, the researcher made use of text books, unpublished books, internet and other related project works.

1.6.3 Instruments for Data Collection:

The instruments used in collecting data for this research work are as follows:

Personal interview: – This is an interpersonal avenue whereby the interviewer meets face to face with the interviewee to ask oral questions.       In this research, some residents were pick and some questions were asked by the researcher to enable him confirm some of the information the questionnaire could not cover very well.

– Questionnaire: – A questionnaire is a list of questions administered unto the respondent to answer in a writing form. Thus, it is an avenue for obtaining answer to research question. Here, relevant answers from the respondents are ascertained as they filled the questionnaire by themselves.

Observation: – This is a process of colleting first-hand information about people, material or event. Here, the researcher is given opportunity or permission to look at some records and events and makes record of event as he feels about them.

1.6.4 Sample Frame, Sample size and Sampling Procedure:

Since it will be difficult to get access to everyone that makes up the population, a good representation of the population was chosen for proper evaluation and analysis. This was done through the use of Taro Yamane’s formula for sample size derivation which goes thus.

n= __N____

1+N (e)2

Where, n = sample size,

N= population,

e= level of significance (5%)

N = 1500                     = 1500       = 315.78, Approximately 316

1+1500(0.05)2           4.75

Therefore, the sample size for this research work is 316.

1.6.5 Method of data analyses:

The data for this research work was analyzed with the use of tables, frequency and simple percentages.

Simple percentage was used to compute the responses from the respondents and this involves the use of tables and frequency. While chi-square test formula will be used to test the result if need be.

The Chi-square test formula goes thus:



Where,         = Chi- square

O  = Observed frequency

E  = Expected frequency

∑  = summation

The decision rule is:

Reject  if calculated is greater than  tabulated and vice versa.

Accept Ho if   calculated is less than  tabulated and vice versa.

1.7 Contribution to Physical Planning Knowledge:

This study will be of benefit to people of Idah Local Government as it will acquaint them of the knowledge of soil erosion, its causes and way forward.

It will pinpoint the role of government in curbing the menace of soil erosion in an area and how they can tackle it.

1.8 Definition of special Terms:

  1. Impact: It is also known as effect. Effects can be seen as a changes produced by an action.
  2. Soil: It is the earth’s fragile skin that anchors all life on Earth. It is comprised of countless species that create a dynamic and complex ecosystem and is among the most precious resources to humans.
  3. Arable land: It is any land that can be used to grow crops.
  4. Soil erosion: It is a naturally occurring process that affects all landforms. In agriculture, soil erosion refers to the wearing away of a field’s topsoil by the natural physical forces of water and wind or through forces associated with farming activities such as tillage.
  5. Degradation: It is the gradual wearing down or wasting, as of rocks and banks, by the action of water or frost.
  6. Detachment: This is when the topsoil is actually “detached” from the rest of the ground.


1.9 Structure for the study:

This study is classified into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introductory part, research design, sources of data and methods of analysis. Chapter two gives the literature review of the topic. Chapter three examines the geographical setting in terms of topography, climate condition, vegetation etc. Chapter four present, interpret and discuss findings from the study. On a whole, Chapter five gives the summary of major findings, recommendations and conclusions.


Get the Complete Project

This is a premium project material and the complete research project plus questionnaires and references can be gotten at an affordable rate of N3,000 for Nigerian clients and $8 for international clients.

Click here to Get this Complete Project Chapter 1-5






You can also check other Research Project here:



Full Project – A study on the impact of soil erosion and control strategies