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1.1 Background of the Study

The human race is not new to the idea of rape. Both in ancient and modern times, it was common. The stigma associated with rape in society means that a significant portion of rape cases go unreported just due to this perception. The response which a rape victim gets is not less than a rape; they feel ashamed and humiliated when they come forward because of the society’s thinking that it’s the woman’s fault (Dilip & Bates, 2021). And if the woman is unmarried she has great difficulty in getting married because society treat her like untouchables. Similar to that, there is a constant fear to the families of the victim or victim herself in reporting the offence. Ifeacho, U.I. (2019), states that the survivors of rape offence almost feel like  they are the ones who did commit any crime. So it is the most important need of our society to make such kind of laws and also to do such amendments in our laws which not only gave justice to the victims but also help them in starting their life afresh and the support authorities or society must try that she feel secure and comfortable after that incidence(Obasi & Onagoruwa, 2019).

In India, rape is fourth most common crime against women in India. According to the 2019 annual report of the National Crime Records Bureau(NCRB), 32033 rape cases were registered across the country, or an average of 88 cases daily. Rape is a traumatic experience which impacts the victims in physical, psychological, and sociological way (Kayode, 2019). Rape survivors faces a crucial barriers in obtaining justice and other support services. We can say that the state of rape victims in India is not in satisfying condition because the rape victims not only faces hurdles in getting justice but along with they are confront the society which have a totally different perspective. Subsequently, questions are been asked on  what are the probable determinants of rapes in India? There is a vast gamut of literature which explores the determinants of domestic violence in India(Peters & Olowa, 2020).

Additionally, rape factors are linked to a greater likelihood of sexual violence (SV) perpetration. Early sexual initiation, coercive sexual fantasies, alcohol and drug use, delinquency, exposure to sexually explicit media, hostility towards women among others are contributing factors and might not be direct causes of rape (Buddie, A.M., & Miller, A.G. ,2021). However, not everyone who is identified as a rapist becomes a perpetrator of violence. A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of becoming a perpetrator of SV. Beyond that, Corman and Mocan (2020) asserts that individuals who engage in criminal activities depend upon the expected payoffs of the activities, the return to legal labour market activities and costs associated with crimes such as conviction and punishment. Also, Fleisher (2019)  reveal that that low income has contributed to higher rates of crime. Arguably, several studies such as Krohn have shown that sexual assault and violent crimes tend to decrease with increasing economic development (Caroline, 2019). According to Okunzua (2020) The early economic models treated crime and work as substitutes and deduced that increasing availability of jobs and higher wages decrease the level of criminal activities (Ifeacho, 2019). Lochner (2021) argues that higher levels of education increase the probability of higher earnings consequently raising the opportunity costs of crime. Therefore, more intelligent and more educated adults should commit fewer street (unskilled) crimes. Many other studies obtain similar findings13 . Dutta and Hussain (2021) asserts that rape may have a “civilization effect” by improving moral stance thereby leading to a reduction in unlawful activities. Many studies and newspaper articles (see, for example, The Times of India, September 9, 2016 and ED Times, May 18, 2016, among others) have blamed the lack of dignity of women in Indian society as one of the central causes for such high occurrence of rapes. Therefore, the study examines factors associated with the raping of women in India.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

After the United States and South Africa, India is the country with the third-highest global rape rate. Given that “a woman is raped in India every twenty minutes,” the situation is terrible and demands a root cause investigation. As per National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) statistics, India witnessed 24,206 recorded rape incidents in 2011. There has been a 9.2 per cent increase in the number of rape incidents reported from 2007 to 2011. There has been an alarming increase in the incidents of rapes in India from 2007 to 2008. However, 2009 recorded marginal decrease followed by consistent rise, recording an increase of 9.2 percent from 2010 to 2011(Obasi &Onagoruwa, 2019).  Provides the regional representation of rape incidents. It can be observed that incidents of rape are highest in North, followed by Central, East and South. Least number of cases has been reported in the West followed by North East of India. It is ironic; in India, a country where many female goddesses are worshiped, crimes against women are on the rise. The questions: ‘Why does a rape occur?’ ‘What causes someone to commit rape?’ ‘What factors contribute to it?’ do not have easy answers. Nonetheless, delving into these questions is essential to plan a strategy to prevent the crimes.

Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to  examine  factors associated with the raping of women in India.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the factors associated with the raping of women in India.  Specifically, the study will;

1.        Examine the prevalence of rape among women in India

2.        Identify the causes of rape of women in India

3.        Assess the effects of rape on women in India

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

1.        Examine the prevalence of rape among women in India

2.        Identify the causes of rape of women in India

3.        Assess the effects of rape on women in India

1.5  Significant of the Study

An examination of factors associated with the raping of women in India will be revealed to the government at various levels, women rights activists, NGOs, law enforcement agencies, women, media houses and  students in this. Additionally, it will inform women and students of the causes of rape, assist NGOs in educating parents and children about the problem of sexual assaults and rape, and promote community discussion on gender-based violence.  Furthermore, the media will be able to use this research to educate the general public about the Sexual Offense Act of 2006 and the harsh penalties for committing rape.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to an assessment of psychological effect of rape incidence on women in India

1.6 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on an  examination on  factors associated with the raping of women in India.. Theoretically, this study will examine the prevalence of rape among women in India, identify the causes of rape of women in India and assess the effects of rape on women in India.

Geographically, the study will be delimited to women in Bombay, India.

1.7 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Rape : unlawful sexual activity.

Rapist: a person who rapes someone.

Women: an adult female human being.

Psychological: related to the mental and emotional state of a person.


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