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A case study of selected Secondary Schools in Chikun Local Government of Kaduna State.




1.1 Background of the Study

The cause of indiscipline in Nigeria has its origin at the periods of colonialism. Several acts of indiscipline exhibited by the colonial agents such as exploitation, humiliation and various political, social, cultural and economic atrocities were later inherited to form an integral part of Nigerian behavioural pattern.

After independence, therefore, Nigeria in their daily life started to imitate these colonial agents. Fellow Nigerians that took over power from the colonial masters started to exhibit these unfortunate colonial heritages on their fellow Nigerians and are even more atrocious than their colonial masters. Gross and down right acts of indiscipline displayed by the politicians was given as one of the reasons for the military intervention in Nigeria politics in 1966.

The present and old Nigeria National Anthems specifically centered on individual liberties. It clearly identified a way of life in which the central value is the individual himself, his concerns and actions, his consent, his happiness, his life. The anthem sees the government as the servant of individual purposes. But the spirit of our National Anthem is more than a declaration of individual supremacy. It is also an expression of faith in the concern of free man for the public welfare. For a free society must rely heavily, if its value are to be defended and realized, on the voluntary actions of its citizens.

However, the aims and objectives of the national anthems have now been shunned by the Nigeria society. Right from the year of independence, Nigerian society is full of different vices. There are mismanagement, abuse of office, corruption, inflation, chaotic economic planning, political crises, selfishness and social vices. The ruling class and civil servants demonstrated unbridled lust for material acquisition. In the process most of them resorted to what could be described as white collar crimes. They colluded with business men and contractors to deplete the nation’s coffers.

The parent problems of indiscipline in educational institutions in Nigeria have been with us for some times now. Indiscipline is present from primary through university levels. The average educational institutions in Nigeria society is by and large not in anyway discipline.

Indiscipline may be said to be as old as the time when men started to organize himself into society and consequently made laws to order the affairs of men in a social set up. In the Holy Scriptures, Cain exhibited some form of indiscipline when he out of envy murdered his brother Abel in their Abode. “Indiscipline” is not an issue that has not been known by all, as people in one way or the other have been involved with indiscipline behaviour on daily basis. Many students today especially those in secondary schools exhibit some forms of indiscipline ranging from stealing, murder, cheating etc. These acts involve both adults and youths, the rate of indiscipline is quite alarming in the modern world.


Indiscipline may be seen as a form of deviating from the set rules guiding behavioral conduct i.e an individual doing or engaging in activities in a wrong way and thereby neglecting the rules and regulations. For instance, there is a rule which says “All pedestrians should not cross the express way rather should cross-over by climbing the over-head bridge”.


The above rule is as clear as crystal and if anyone contradicts the rule, the person will be termed as “undisciplined”. The Oxford Advanced Dictionary defines “indiscipline” as lack of control in the behaviour of a group of people. In other words, it is the ability of an individual to live contrarily with rules.


Most schools in the past were voluntary agency schools. As at then, there was harmony as principals, teachers shared the same view of students desirable behaviours. The quality of school system as regards to discipline was very high up till the end of Nigerian civil war in January 1970. Some of the indiscipline acts that began to manifest after the civil war include; bullying, exam malpractice, cultist activities, truancy etc. (Source from: This Day Newspaper page 26, 13th of February 2002).


Zubaida (2009) identifies various forms of indiscipline among the secondary schools students such as truancy, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting/assaulting, stealing, rioting and many other anti-social vices. According to Zubaida (2009) and Eyinade (1999), a number of these acts of indiscipline were directed against constituted authorities and established rules. An example of this is refusal to wear the right school uniform and going out of bounds without permission. The respect which teachers command among students had been seriously worn-off. And some teachers have not done much to help the situation by their actions. This problem has turned to a national issue.

Our leaders in the past have tried to remedy this situation but the problem proved not to be solved. One of the cardinal objectives of education as spelt out in the National policy on education (2004) revised, is to inculcate right type of values and attitudes to education, parental factors and teacher attitude.


Therefore, there is need to get at the root of causes of indiscipline among students with a view of finding a solution. In this light the researchers concern is to find out factors responsible for indiscipline among secondary school students with a view to provide solutions in order to make our educational system what it ought to be.


In any civilized society, the fostering of discipline is a necessary condition on the maintenance of law and order. It is a pre-requisite for the promotion of political, social and economic development of a society or nation achieves is to a large extent a function by its various organs and what they are able to inculcate on the youth is very essential in order to ensure loyalty of the citizens and to the social and economic development of the country. The national policy of education (1981) stated the purpose of education as follows: “To create a good society where all its members can use their disposal to develop all the natural resources within the environment in pursuit of the self goal and objective?” there have been a considerable exhibition of indiscipline in school of which a lot of bad behaviour such as gambling, smoking, drunkenness, stealing, bribery, corruption and drug addiction flourished. In fact, it was in realization of these problems that led to the launching of the ethnical war against (W.A.I.) by the Buhari military regime in 1984.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The word indiscipline has eaten the heart of many students in Kaduna State precisely Chikun located in the southern region of the Kaduna State.

Before now, during the management of missionary in our educational system, which can never be over-emphasized. Because every child wants to go to school early, dress in their correct uniform obeys the school rules and regulation and respect their teachers. There was high level of discipline in the school system then because teachers are always there to guide the students on what to do and what not to do.


Indiscipline especially in Nigeria is to an extent glorified in the sense that politicians who claim to govern and allocate scarce resource for the nation to find themselves involve in all sort of nefarious activities which include bribery, embezzlement of public funds, non-approving or delay of contact etc. These same politicians are being looked up to in the sense that they are seen as the leaders of the nation in such acts arebeing seen as normal behaviour by young children due to the fact that the politicians are always getting away with some criminal issues without being subjected to strict penalty for their crimes committed. Most of these high profiled politicians are parents to school children who are in one way or the other influenced by their parents negative actions.


Western culture in one way or the other has contributed to indiscipline in schools via several means including social world, which entails; Television, Satellite dish, Magazine etc. Young secondary school students always connect to the social media; Facebook, Yahoo etc. and also most importantly the television sets which in one way has contributed to the indiscipline life style students are faced with in schools by practicing those negative actions which had earlier been seen by them.


These days, there are no more strict restrictions that guide the behaviour of students if at all there is,it is not being given attention to by the students and sometimes the school administration bendthe rules to favour the students so as to invite few students who will benefit from the rules and regulations given by that particular secondary school or high school.


1.3   Research Objectives

In this study, efforts are made to answer the following questions.

  • To find out if student’s personal characteristic causes indiscipline in secondary school.
  • To examine the influence of home on the student’s behaviour in secondary school.
  • To determine if school environment have any impact on student’s behaviour in secondary schoo.
  • To find out if teachers’ behaviour cause indiscipline among students in secondary school.
  • To find out if societal variable cause indiscipline among secondary school students.



1.4   Research Questions

In this study, efforts are made to answer the following questions.

  • Does a student’s personal characteristic cause indiscipline in secondary school?
  • What influence does the home have on the student’s behaviour in secondary school?
  • Does school environment have any impact on student’s behaviour in secondary school?
  • Does the teachers’ behaviour cause indiscipline among students in secondary school?
  • Does societal variable cause indiscipline among secondary school students?


1.5 Research Hypotheses

To guide this study, the following hypothesis is necessary:

  1. There is no correlation between parental influence and upbringing of the child contributing to the indiscipline of the child.
  2. There is no correlation between peer groups influence among students in the area of indiscipline.
  • There is no correlation for punishments for indiscipline among secondary school students.
  1. There is no correlation between indiscipline and academic performance of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

School administrators, teachers, government and policy makers in their effort to put an end to the problem of students indiscipline specifically the outcome of this work would assist parents and society in monitoring the activities of their children through the results of this study.

This study will be useful to the government and policy makers in formulating policies that will ensure a discipline and patriotic behavior on the part of the students.

The significance of the study is that findings would be of tremendous help to education, students, teachers and all others concerned with the learning process of students both within and outside Chikun. For example, if the recommendation of the study are considered, the heavy losses usually suffered by the community and the nation in general in terms of property and man power due tostudent unrest would be minimized; if not totally eliminated, parents would be retrieved of the inherent fears and anxieties about their behavior patterns of their children in school as they would gain insight into what the problem of the children are and how to treat them in acceptable manner both at home and in school. School management replaces the old traditional method. As a result of this, combination gap existing in schools would be bridged. In short an atmosphere would be created while students would be able to properly master skills and be member of groups which are purposefully active.


1.7 Scope of The Study

The study examined Causes and Effects of indiscipline Acts on Academic Performance of students in Public Secondary Schools. The scope of study is limited to a secondary school in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. There was adequate coverage in the school concerning the Causes and Effects of indiscipline Acts on Academic Performance of students in Public Secondary Schools.


1.7 Definition Of Concepts

Students: A person who is studying at a college or university. It can also mean to be someone learning or studying in a formal system.

School: This is a place where the children between 10 – 18 years acquire knowledge and prepare themselves towards tertiary institution.

Student: Someone who studies at school.

Teacher: Person that teachers in the classroom one who transmit knowledge to others.

Discipline: The situation that results from the practice of making people obey rules and orders.

Indiscipline: This is the inability to have self-control.


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